- Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) have important metabolic actions which are gender-specific (sex-dimorphic).
- Most T and E2 circulate bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a glycoprotein that regulates the amount of sex steroids available for biological action.
- Of total T, 54% weakly bound to albumin and other proteins, 44% bound to SHBG, 2% unbound (free T).
- In reproductive age women, one third of T is secreted by the ovary, whereas two thirds arise from the peripheral conversion of androstenedione to T.
- Androstenedione is directly produced by the ovary but also from peripheral conversion of adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S).
- Male Hypogonadism (for example, with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer) is linked to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
- Hyperandrogenism in women (for example, with polycystic ovarian syndrome) is linked to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. High T in postmenopausal women is also linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
- High endogenous E2 is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes in males and postmenopausal women.
- Low SHBG is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in both males and females.
- A recent study suggested that women under the age of 45 years who have type 2 diabetes have three times the risk of early menopause compared to women without diabetes.
- Low total T may be associated with more advanced atherosclerotic disease markers in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes.
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Last updated: May 4, 2015
Emiliano, Ana, and Rita Rastogi Kalyani. "Sex Hormones." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2015. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547133/all/Sex_Hormones.
Emiliano A, Rastogi Kalyani R. Sex Hormones. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2015. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547133/all/Sex_Hormones. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Emiliano, A., & Rastogi Kalyani, R. (2015). Sex Hormones. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547133/all/Sex_Hormones
Emiliano A, Rastogi Kalyani R. Sex Hormones [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2015. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547133/all/Sex_Hormones.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Sex Hormones ID - 547133 A1 - Emiliano,Ana,M.D. AU - Rastogi Kalyani,Rita,M.D., M.H.S. Y1 - 2015/05/04/ BT - Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547133/all/Sex_Hormones DB - Johns Hopkins Guides DP - Unbound Medicine ER -