Sachin Kalyani, M.D.


  • Retinal vascular complications of diabetes mellitus are classified into nonproliferative and proliferative forms.
  • Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR): describes the earliest retinal changes of diabetic retinopathy, resulting from damage to the small blood vessels in the retina.
  • Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR): describes a later stage of retinopathy, with new growth of abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina.

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Last updated: July 7, 2020