- Gonococcal urethritis:5-20%
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae: 5-20% of urethritis in the U.S. (higher in inner-city populations).
- Non-gonococcal urethritis:
- Chlamydia trachomatis (CT): the most frequent cause of urethritis in men accounting for 23%-55% of cases. However, the proportion of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) cases due to CT is declining gradually.
- Mycoplasma genitalium: maybe the second most frequent cause of urethritis in the U.S. and UK. It May account for between 15%-22% of cases of acute NGU. It also has a role in chronic NGU.
- Trichomonas vaginalis: is the cause of only about 2% of cases of acute NGU but probably a higher proportion of chronic NGU.
- Risks in men for infertility, HIV.
- Ureaplasma urealyticum: biovar 2 is probably a more important cause of acute NGU than previously realized. Note that organisms can be cultured in 30-40% of asymptomatic men. Quantification of the organism may help establish a diagnosis.
- Less common: include
- Herpes simplex virus (rare in the absence of noticeable skin lesions)
- Haemophilus spp
- Yeasts, e.g., Candida spp.
- N. meningitidis
- Increasingly described in symptomatic MSM.
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
- Novel bacteria recently associated with bacterial vaginosis, such as Leptotrichia/Sneathia spp. may be the urethral pathogens of "idiopathic" NGU.
There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.