Often a mix of bacterial pathogens, occasionally herpesviruses producing proinflammatory cytokines → periodontal breakdown. The list is partial.
- Prevotella gingvivalia and P. intermedia
- Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
- Treponema denticola
- Bacteroides forsythus
- Fusobacterium nucleatum
- Capnocytophaga spp.
- Peptostreptococcus micros
- Gram-negative anaerobes
- Candida spp. recovered (esp. in HIV), but unclear if part of the pathology
- Herpes viruses, usually HSV
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