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Common clostridial species causing gas gangrene:
- Clostridium perfringens
- Most commonly identified organism.
- Produces > 20 exotoxins, including lethal Alpha and Beta toxins that cause necrosis and hemolysis.
- Clostridium novyi
- Clostridium septicum
- Clostridium histolyticum
- Clostridium sordellii (seen with toxic shock after childbirth, users of contaminated heroin injections and patients with malignancy)
- Review of spontaneous C. sordelli-associated gas gangrene found that known or occult malignancy was seen in 71% of the 94 patients in the literature; overall mortality was 67%.