Empyema and Parapneumonic Effusions
- S. pneumoniae and other streptococci (50%)
- Streptococcus intermedius complex ([previously S. milleri], S. anginosus, S. constellatus) now dominates in community-acquired cases.
- S. aureus including MRSA (10%)
- Anaerobes (20%)
- Gram-negative bacilli (GNB, 10%)
- Noscomial: Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus (MRSA)
- Rare causes:
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