Empyema is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX) Guide.

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  • S. pneumoniae and other streptococci (50%)
    • Streptococcus intermedius complex ([previously S. milleri], S. anginosus, S. constellatus) now dominates in community-acquired cases
  • S. aureus including MRSA (10%)
  • Anaerobes (20%)
  • Gram-negative bacilli (GNB, 10%)
  • Noscomial: Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus (MRSA)
  • Rare causes:

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Last updated: January 3, 2016