Clostridioides (ex. Clostridium) difficile


  • Spore-forming anaerobe, Gram-positive bacillus [Fig 1].
    • Found in human and animal feces, also in water and soils.
    • Reclassified as molecular sequencing suggests that the organism should be in the Peptostreptococcaceae family and termed Peptoclostridium.
      • Clostridioides difficile name was selected to differentiate from Clostridiaspp., which are not related but allow for less clinical confusion moving from the long-standing terminology of Clostridium difficile[17].
  • Produces toxins A and B that cause colitis in humans.
  • Occasionally grown in anaerobic cultures, rarely a cause of infection other than colitis.
  • Resistance described to metronidazole and high MICs correlates with poorer outcomes[7].
    • Increased MICs to vancomycin and fidaxomicin were also seen in some isolates rarely, but the clinical significance is not certain[6].

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Last updated: May 12, 2023