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- Lipodystrophy: changes in body fat composition based on anthropomorphic measures of fat distribution such as waist circumference.
- Accompanied by metabolic disorders: dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, insulin resistance, and DM.
- Associated with long-term use of some ARV regimens.
- Lipohypertrophy (LH) or fat accumulation (FA): central visceral fat gain, increased breast fat, and dorsocervical fat pad ("Buffalo hump").
- Central adiposity linked to higher mortality.
- Associated with elevation of inflammatory cytokines.
- Lipoatrophy (LA): peripheral fat loss in face, limbs and buttocks.
- Consequence of thymidine analog NRTIs: d4T, ZDV. Switching ART prevents progression, but fat recovery slow and likely incomplete.
- Can be confused with wasting, which is due to HIV disease progression and/or OIs, and includes both muscle and fat loss.
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