- Furusyo N, Hayashi J. Glycated albumin and diabetes mellitus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013. [PMID:23673238]
- Kohzuma T, Yamamoto T, Uematsu Y, et al. Basic performance of an enzymatic method for glycated albumin and reference range determination. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(6):1455-62. [PMID:22226265]
- Selvin E, Francis LM, Ballantyne CM, et al. Nontraditional markers of glycemia: associations with microvascular conditions. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(4):960-7. [PMID:21335368]
- Chen HS, Wu TE, Lin HD, et al. Hemoglobin A(1c) and fructosamine for assessing glycemic control in diabetic patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(5):867-74. [PMID:20202728]
Comment: This study suggests that estimated average glucose calculated from HbA1c and fructosamine underestimates mean blood glucose in patients with CKD stages 3-4.
- Roohk HV, Zaidi AR. A review of glycated albumin as an intermediate glycation index for controlling diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(6):1114-21. [PMID:19885300]
- Dungan KM. 1,5-anhydroglucitol (GlycoMark) as a marker of short-term glycemic control and glycemic excursions. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2008;8(1):9-19. [PMID:18088226]
Comment: Comprehensive review of 1,5-AG as a marker of short term glycemia
- Dungan KM, Buse JB, Largay J, et al. 1,5-anhydroglucitol and postprandial hyperglycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring system in moderately controlled patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1214-9. [PMID:16731998]
Comment: Describes utility of 1,5-AG in assessing post-prandial hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes
- Saudek CD, Derr RL, Kalyani RR. Assessing glycemia in diabetes using self-monitoring blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c. JAMA. 2006;295(14):1688-97. [PMID:16609091]
Comment: Literature review assessing the evidence underlying the use of self-monitored blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c.
- Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, et al. Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(7):1761-73. [PMID:15220264]
Comment: Technical review of the tests most widely used in monitoring blood glucose control by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry and published as a position statement by the American Diabetes Association.
- Buse JB, Freeman JL, Edelman SV, et al. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (GlycoMark ): a short-term glycemic marker. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003;5(3):355-63. [PMID:12828817]
Comment: Describes clinical utility of 1,5-AG.
- Herdzik E, Safranow K, Ciechanowski K. Diagnostic value of fasting capillary glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin in detecting diabetes and other glucose tolerance abnormalities compared to oral glucose tolerance test. Acta Diabetol. 2002;39(1):15-22. [PMID:12043934]
Comment: This study found that fructosamine correlated better with 2h-post-load glucose than fasting glucose values.
- Austin GE, Wheaton R, Nanes MS, et al. Usefulness of fructosamine for monitoring outpatients with diabetes. Am J Med Sci. 1999;318(5):316-23. [PMID:10555094]
Comment: Prospective case-control study evaluating impact of same-day serum fructosamine levels on clinical decision making.
- Yamanouchi T, Akanuma Y. Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5 AG): new clinical marker for glycemic control. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;24 Suppl:S261-8. [PMID:7859616]
Comment: Good review of 1,5-AG
- Gebhart SS, Wheaton RN, Mullins RE, et al. A comparison of home glucose monitoring with determinations of hemoglobin A1c, total glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine, and random serum glucose in diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151(6):1133-7. [PMID:2043015]
Comment: Study comparing four objective measures of glycemic control with home glucose monitoring in diabetic patients.
- Howey JE, Bennet WM, Browning MC, et al. Clinical utility of assays of glycosylated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine compared: use of data on biological variation. Diabet Med. 1989;6(9):793-6. [PMID:2533039]
Comment: Describes the relative variation of HbA1c and fructosamine with changes in glycemia.
- Negoro H, Morley JE, Rosenthal MJ. Utility of serum fructosamine as a measure of glycemia in young and old diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Am J Med. 1988;85(3):360-4. [PMID:3414731]
Comment: Comparison of fructosamine levels with other measures of glycemia in young and old diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.
- Armbruster DA. Fructosamine: structure, analysis, and clinical usefulness. Clin Chem. 1987;33(12):2153-63. [PMID:3319287]
Comment: Details the mechanisms,usefulness, and limitations of available fructosamine assays.
- Baker JR, Metcalf PA, Holdaway IM, et al. Serum fructosamine concentration as measure of blood glucose control in type I (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985;290(6465):352-5. [PMID:3917816]
Comment: Evaluation of fructosamine as a measure of glycemia in type 1 diabetics.
- Baker JR, Johnson RN, Scott DJ. Serum fructosamine concentrations in patients with type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus during changes in management. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;288(6429):1484-6. [PMID:6426612]
Comment: Prospective study evaluating usefulness of fructosamine in monitoring metabolic control in non-insulin dependent diabetics during changes in management.
- Lorena Alarcon-Casas Wright and Irl B. Hirsch The Challenge of the Use of Glycemic Biomarkers in Diabetes: Reflecting on Hemoglobin A1C, 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, and the Glycated Proteins Fructosamine and Glycated Albumin Diabetes Spectrum August 2012 25:141-148; doi:10.2337/diaspect.25.3.141