Japanese Encephalitis Virus
- Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus similar to the St. Louis encephalitis virus, Zika, Murray Valley encephalitis, yellow fever, Dengue, and West Nile virus.
- JEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in tropical and temperate areas.
- Wild birds are natural hosts, and domestic pigs, wading birds, and bats are amplifying hosts.
- Blood transfusion and organ transplantation are potential modes of transmission.
- JEV is endemic in Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, causing about 70,000 cases of infection and 14,000-20,000 deaths per year worldwide.
- The recent detection of JEV in multiple commercial piggeries across four temperate southern Australian states led to a "Communicable Disease Incident of National Significance" declaration on March 4, 2022.
- The risk of infection is estimated at 1/5000 per month of travel to rural areas of Asia where transmission occurs.
- In temperate Asia, the incidence of cases peaks in summer and fall.
- In the tropics or subtropics, transmission occurs in wet seasons but may occur year-round.
- Emerging risk in southern Europe via C. pipiens with JEV sequences found in mosquitoes and birds in Italy.
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