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- In phenotypic resistance assays, RT, PR, integrase and envelope gene sequences derived from patient plasma HIV RNA are used to measure HIV replication at different concentrations of ARVs.
- Phenotypic co-receptor tropism assays detect CCR5, CXCR4, or dual/mixed (D/M)-tropic virus. Viral tropism is the ability of HIV to bind to different co-receptors on target cells to achieve viral entry, used to assess activity of CCR5 antagonist (maraviroc).