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- 4 autoantibodies are markers of beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes: Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA, against cytoplasmic proteins in the beta cell), antibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD-65), Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA), and IA-2A, to protein tyrosine phosphatase  .
- Autoantibodies against GAD 65 are found in 80% of type 1 diabetics at clinical presentation  .
- Presence of ICA and IA-2A at diagnosis for type 1 diabetes range from 69-90% and 54-75%, respectively  .
- IAA prevalence correlates inversely with age at onset of diabetes; it is usually the first marker in young children at risk for diabetes  and found in approximately 70% of young children at time of diagnosis  .