- Yeast-like, round fungus; usual size is 5-10µm with polysaccharide capsule.
- Reproduces by narrow-based budding.
- Epidemiology: worldwide in soil, high levels in pigeon droppings (but this relevance is questionable for human disease).
- Two species:
- C. neoformans: four serotypes (A to D) described based upon the capsule components. Two varieties cause human disease:
- C. neoformans v. neoformans (most common)
- C. neoformans v. grubii
- C. gattii: newly categorized as a species seen primarily in Australia, Western Canada and northwestern United States (Washington and Oregon).
- Clinical presentation and diagnosis and treatment are the same as with C. neoformans.
- Differences from C. neoformans include higher attack rates in healthy hosts, and worse prognosis.
- Appears more resistant to fluconazole.
Cryptococcus species was found in Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.
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