Ramos MC, Ing M, Kim E, et al.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center, Torrance 90509, USA.
SourceAntimicrob Agents Chemother 1996 Jan; 40(1)
Optimal strategies for the prophylaxis and therapy of endocarditis caused by oxacillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients with native or prosthetic valvular heart disease are not well defined. We compared the in vivo efficacies of ampicillin-sulbactam-based regimens with those of vancomycin-based oxacillin-resistant, beta-lactamase-producing coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolate (Staphylococcus haemolyticus SE220). Ampicillin-sulbactam (100 and 20 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, given intramuscularly in a two-dose regimen) was equivalent to vancomycin (30 mg/kg given intravenously in a two-dose regimen) in its prophylactic efficacy against the coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain (93 and 80%, respectively). The combination of ampicillin-sulbactam plus either rifampin or vancomycin did not enhance the prophylactic efficacy compared with that of ampicillin-sulbactam or vancomycin alone. In the therapy of established aortic valve endocarditis in rabbits caused by this same coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain, animals received 7-day ampicillin-sulbactam-based or vancomycin-based regimens with or without rifampin. All treatment regimens were effective at lowering intravegetation coagulase-negative staphylococcal densities and rendering vegetations culture negative compared with the coagulase-negative staphylococcal densities and vegetations of untreated controls, with ampicillin-sulbactam in combination with rifampin or vancomycin being the most active regimen. However, only the regimen of ampicillin-sulbactam in combination with vancomycin effectively prevented relapse of endocarditis posttherapy after a 5-day antibiotic-free period. For animals receiving rifampin-containing regimens, relapses of endocarditis were associated with the in vivo development of rifampin resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates in the vegetation. Ampicillin-sulbactam was highly effective in the prevention of experimental endocarditis caused by a beta-lactamase-producing, oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain. Ampicillin-sulbactam was also efficacious for the therapy of coagulase-negative staphylococcal endocarditis, especially when it was combined with vancomycin to prevent posttherapeutic relapses.
MeshAmpicillinAnimalsCoagulaseDrug Therapy, CombinationEndocarditis, BacterialFemaleMicrobial Sensitivity TestsPenicillin ResistanceRabbitsStaphylococcal InfectionsStaphylococcusSulbactambeta-Lactamases
Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't