Chambers HF, Xiang Q, Liu , et al.
Department of Medicine, University of California, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA. email@example.com
SourceAntimicrob Agents Chemother 1999 Nov; 43(11)
Levofloxacin is among the more active fluoroquinolones against streptococci and staphylococci. It is effective against moderately severe infections caused by these organisms, but its efficacy in the treatment of bacteremia and serious infections such as endocarditis is not well defined. We compared the efficacy of levofloxacin to those of standard agents in the rabbit model of aortic-valve endocarditis caused by fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains including a penicillin-susceptible strain of Streptococcus sanguis, a penicillin-resistant strain of Streptococcus mitis, a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, and a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. aureus. Levofloxacin administered intramuscularly at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/kg of body weight twice daily (b.i.d.) was completely ineffective against the penicillin-susceptible strain, with mean vegetation titers after 3 days of therapy not statistically significantly different from those for controls. Levofloxacin was no more effective than penicillin against the penicillin-resistant strain. Levofloxacin administered for 4 days at a dosage of 20 mg/kg b.i.d. was at least as effective as vancomycin administered intravenously at a dosage of 25 mg/kg b.i. d. against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain and was as effective as nafcillin administered intramuscularly at 100 mg three times daily against the methicillin-susceptible strain. Emergence of resistance to levofloxacin in vitro was less likely to occur than resistance to ciprofloxacin, and resistance to levofloxacin was not observed in vivo. Levofloxacin-rifampin combinations were antagonistic in vitro and in vivo. Levofloxacin was highly effective as a single agent against experimental staphylococcal endocarditis but was surprisingly ineffective against streptococcal endocarditis, suggesting that it has a potential role as treatment for serious S. aureus but not viridans group streptococcal infections in humans.
MeshAnimalsAortic ValveDrug Resistance, MicrobialEndocarditis, BacterialHeart Valve DiseasesMethicillin ResistanceMicrobial Sensitivity TestsOfloxacinPenicillin ResistanceRabbitsStaphylococcal InfectionsStaphylococcus aureusStreptococcal InfectionsStreptococcus sanguis
Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't